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Eugene A. Balashov. Terijoki - a brief course.

Historical review

Terijoki was first mentioned in 1548 due to the fact that the Swedish King Gustav Vasa has ordered to execute several peasants, who dealt with illegal trades with ganzy cities. One of the executed peasants was known as Antti from Terijoki. During that time all finnish lands, including Karelian neck, where Terijoki is situated, were of the part of Sweden Kingdom.

In 1710 during The Nothern War, which was unleashed in 1700 by Peter the Great, the city of Vyborg was captured, according to Nishtadt's peace treaty of 1721 the new finnish-russian border was established to north-west from Vyborg. Thus Terijoki, included in Vyborg province, became the part of Russia.

In 1807 Russia and France signed Tilzit's treaty, because of which Russia announced the war to Sweden in 1808. By 1809 Finland was completely occupied by russian armies. On 17th of September 1809 Sweden had to accept the peace treaty with Russia, Finland was annexed to Russia, and was given particular state system of Great principality of Finland, which responded to spirit and ideas of its population. In 1811 by decree of the Tzar Alexandr I Vyborg province was returned to the autonomous principality of Finland.

After the February Revolution of 1917, Finland has requested separation from the Temporary Administration of Russia. However, Kerensky, being the chairman of the Russian Government, was attempting to slow down the discussion regarding the matter, being opposed to the independence of Finland. But after the crisis of the Temporary Government, the Council of Finland, created earlier, has declared the Independent Republic of Finland on December, 6, 1917. Now this fact was supposed to be legally accepted by Russia. The decree of "Self-orientation of Nations", proclaimed by V. Lenin, has left no chance for the Bolsheviks to ignore the "Finnish Question" any longer. In December, 1917, the independence of Finland was legally confirmed by the Rusian "Council of People's Comissars" In accordance with the so-called "Tartu" or "Yuriyevsky" peace declaration, dated 1920, the Parties have agreed about the fact that the Border between Finland and the "Soviet Union" will match the border configuration of the former "Great Kingdom of Finland". That is how Terijoki was returned to Finland, being only 20 kilometers away from the Finnish border.

In 1939, the Pact of Molotov and Ribbentrop has actually legalized the possibility for Stalin to control the entire Baltic Area. For the duration of 18 months, the Soviet Union has tried to get the safety problem of Leningrad solved. They had multiple negotiations with Finland, trying to convince the country to sacrifice part of the Karelian Neck to the Soviet Union, as the "Northern Territory". The Finlanders were ready to compromise, but not as much as it was expected by the Soviet Administration. On November, 26, 1939, at the border restricted area standpoint at the village of Mainila, located on the Karelian Neck, had it's place a mysterious "provocation incident", which allowed the Soviet Administration to claim allegations towards the Finish Government. Early morning, November, 30, 1939, Soviet troops have crossed the border, having started the so-called "Winter War".

At a price of enormous losses, as late as in February, 1940, the Red Army has managed to brake the "Mannerheim Line". The military actions seized on March, 13, 1940, Finland was, in fact, forced to accept very harsh conditions, losing about one tenth of it's territories.

Having lost the old supporters, Finland has started partnership with Hittler, who placed a portion of his troops in the North of Finland. On June, 26, 1941, four days after the German attack towards the Soviet Union, Finland has also declared war to the Soviet Union from it's part. On August, 1941, the Finnish troops have reached the former border line on Karelian Neck.

The sudden attack of the Soviet troops in June, 1944, has forced the Finnish troops to start moving backwards. Suffering from severe losses in Karelia and behind the Polar Line, Finland has left the war, having signed the preliminary peace declaration with the Soviet Union, on September, 19, 1944. The final declaration was mutually signed by Finland and the Soviet Union on February, 10, 1947. The Agreement of Friendship, Co-operation and Partnership was signed on April, 6, 1947. Finally, Finland lost the right to renew any claims towards the Soviet Union, regarding the lands, lost due to the "Winter War".

Terijoki before 1918

In the 16th century, the village of Terijoki, which consisted of three peasant properties under taxation, used to be part of Uusikirkko. In the first part of the 17th century, there were already 29 yards in Terijoki. During the Northern War, the population rate has dramatically decreased, but later in the future, peasants of the nearby village have inhabitated the shore again. In 1848, there already are 36 yards and a small soap brewery, operated by 4 permanent workers. The fresh start towards populating the territory has began after the construction of the railway from St. Petersburg. The outdoor fashion has completely converted the village of Terijoki. In 1897, the Terijoki area is already populated by 2979 people, including 40% of Russians. In the beginning of the 20th century, the population rate has increased to 3500 people, and 55.000 people in the summer time. By 1908, there were already 1400 private summer houses. Three years later, the village was provided with electricity.

Terijoki in the beginning of the century was considered to be the largest summer recreation village on the shore of the Gulf of Finland. It comprised three unofficially separated parts or districts: Keskikula (Central Village), Kekosenpaa (Kekkonen corner), Ollinpaa (Olli Corner), and Rallala, or Koivikko (Birch Grove).

The absolute majority of various stores, shops, warehouses and municipal offices was concentrated in the Central Village. All temples were also located on that territory. To the East of Keskikula, there was the recreation area, called Ollinpaa, and to the West of the Central Village - Kekosenpaa. To the North of the Railway - there was a relatively small summer housing neighborhood, called Rallala. In Finnish it means "waster". The villagers were less strict, calling their district "Koivikko"- (Birch Grove). Apparently, first residents of this place were basically represented by the railway construction workers, and later - the entire railway staff has been accommodated in the area.

The first wooden train station was built in 1870, simultaneously with the rail road. In 1917, a big stone-built train station was constructed a kilometer away, by Bruno Granholm. This beautiful building in the style of national romantism, was in line with all the demands of the railway service of those days. At the same time, they built a sub-traffic tonnel and a pedestrian sub-walk tonnel.

The major part of proprietors and renters of summer houses on the border between 19-20 centuries, was represented by merchants, owners of industrial facilities, wealthy nobility and office employees from St. Petersburg. A summer period in Terijoki attracted elite from the capoitol, among which there were several well-known celebrities of the science and culture, such as M.E. Saltikov-Shedrin, I.P. Pavlov, D.I. Mendeleev, V.I. Meyerhold, D.F. Lesgaft and many others. Even A. Block was also renting an apartment in the Terijoki area.

One of the locals, named Mikko Wattinen, was the inspirer of the Finnish part of the population. A son of a wealthy merchant and landlord, he studied in the Viborg real liceum, but did not graduate, having been fascinated by social revolutionary activities. A conspirative apartment of the Russian Social-Democratic Party headquarters was also located in his house, the apartment was frequently visited by the Bolshevik leader - Vladimir Ulyanov. In 1907, M. Wattinen was the leader of the Terijoki local community and later in the future he started publishing two papers - "Terijoki" and "Terijoki Diary".

The radical Russian revolutionary movement was performing illegal party-related activities in Terijoki, there were numerous transportation warehouses with illegal literature and weapons. In 1906-1907, the Bolsheviks were organizing their conferences in the Terijoki area.


Luteran Kirha
In 1904, the local Lutheran community has formed in Terijoki, and four years later, they opened their own Lutheran church. The Lutheran church, constructed in 1907-1908 by the project of the Finnish architect, Josef Stenbek, was facilitated with a 12-register organ, built in Germany. The church building with a tall chapel was a brilliant sample of neogotica and became an integral part of the surrounding landscape.
Ortodox Kazan Godmother's Icon Church
An orthodox church was constructed in Terijoki already in 1881. It was built in Ollinpaa in Andreij Durd's villa, but in 1901 (from another source in 1907), it was destroyed by a fire. A new church was built by the project of N.N. Nikonov in 1914, the main shrine was baptized on July, 5th , 1915, in the name of the Kazan Holly Mother.
Another Orthodox church was built out of wood in 1901. Money to build this church came from peasant M.Bogomolov. It was rather small - about 50 square meters and was located on the old Terijoki cemetery. This church disappeared in the 1940 during "Winter" war.
There were also another orthodox churches in Terijoki parish - one in Raivola (Komarovo now) and one in Kuokkala (Repino now).
Orthodox Spasskaya Church

The records also indicate the fact that another cemetery was located in the Kajavalampi lake (presently - Druzhnoye or Chertovo). At the present time this cemetery is completely robbed and humiliated.

A Catholic church had also existed in Terijoki. Initially, since 1906, it operated as a prayer house, which was built inside one of the summer cabins. But, once during the World War One, Terijoki has accepted a flow of Polish emigrants, who settled here for permanent living, the Catholics needed more room for praying. In 1921, they formed the so-called Holly Heart Chapel. A proper building was found in the empty three-floor summer house of Nechaev. In 1924, the summer house and entire property was purchased by Pope 12th.

The hurricane of changes, brought by the Revolution, has thrown several families of Turkish merchants into the Terijoki area. They lived as a closed community and soon set-up a prayer house, substituting for a mosque.

All these temples of the World's religions were actually located next to each other on the East side of the main road, called Viertotie, which, after being renamed, is commonly known as the Lenin Prospect.

1918-1939 years

In January, 1918,the Civil War has began in Finland. On January, 24, there were 6 Finnish red-Guardians, led by some person, named Kolunen. But, on January, 28, 1918, an armed company of workers from Petrograd arrived to Terijoki and established the Soviet rule there. This process did not go without bloodshed, having not found support among the majority of the local population, which even showed passive resistance towards the new regime. As Kalunen heard about the failure of the Finnish Red Guard on April, 24th, he moved from Terijoki to Petrograd on an armored train, having shot dead several security people at the station of Kuokkala (presently-Repino.) After the Reds were gone, life in Terijoki has gradually gone back to peace, but the circumstances of the border life have dramatically changed. The border with the Soviet Russia became unpenetratable, and all the trade and economic relations with Petrograd seized.

Early morning in winter, 1921, an 8-thousand people group of Krondstadt refugees entered Terijoki from the ice of the Gulf of Finland. Among the refugees there were Russian sailors, soldairs and officers with their families. Four thousand people out of them were accommodated in the Ino fort, some of them were directed to Bjerke (Koivisto), and the rest of them were moved to Raivola and to the Viborg area. Only 600 people were left in Terijoki. The Finnish Council of State, in accordance with the recommendation of K.G.E. Mannerheim, has assigned 250 thousand marks for the needs of the refugees. After the 3 months of separation, the Krondstadters went to look for a new shelter in Finland and Europe, but some of them decided to stay in Terijoki.1500 people have returned to Russia.

In the 1930-ies, the Finland started supporting the recovery of the recreation area on the Terijoki shore. Many Russian summer houses were then remodeled into hospitals. The Terijoki area soon became famous not only in Finland, but also in some other Nordic countries.

In the summer, 1931, Mannerheim himself spent his vacation in Terijoki, in the cottage of Blank, being the chairman of the Finnish Council of Defence. The former summer house of Mari Prokope still exists, even though it looks pretty old and lost nowadays. Today it is building 7/9 on the second Beach Street, currently occupied by the children's recreation camp, called "Lastochka".

By 1939, there were already over 100 landlords in Keskikulla, all of them had their own houses. There also were a number of social purpose buildings, such as police department, post office, casino, 7 hotels, 3 educational establishments, 2 hospitals, 2 drugstores, stadium, Labor Union building, Women's Committee building, officer's club.

There were 130 owners in Ollinpaa, 3 stores, restaurant, hotel and school. The same number of private properties were in Kekosenpaa, 4 stores and a school with a dormitory for teachers.

There were 140 private houses in Koivikko, russian and finnish schools, hospital, drugstore, 6 stores, caramel factory and a hotel.

The village of Terijoki became the center of the Volost already in 1910, after the separation of two lakeshore villages - Terijoki and Kelomaki. In 1920, the village of Puhtula has joined the newly-formed volost, in 1923 - villages, called Tulokas and Luutahanta, in 1924 - the village of Kuokkala, and finally, the formation of the volost was completed. Besides the above mentioned villages, the Terijoki volost has also accepted the State-owned forest area, so the entire square grew up to 123 square kilometers. So the population rate has gotten closer to 8.051 people.

In 1924, on the territory, next to the railway station, appeared several military hostels, brought there from Petrograd. They accommodated the so-called 1st Samokatny company, which was later renamed into the 1st Yegersky, with about 1500 solders. In the summer, the platoon relocated into the nearby forest, where they were under training in the field conditions. The concrete targeting boxes, seen from the Mansikkamakki hill in the area, known among the today's skiers, as "Serenade", still remind about those military activities. It used to be the shooting place of the platoon. Those warriors were the first to fight the attacking forces of the Red Army early morning, November, 30, 1939, being in command of Colonel Karhu.

"Winter" war of 1939

In the beginning of October, same year, the absolute majority of the Terijoki residents were evacuated. At the dusk of the last day of the fall, same year, a hurricane of fire was heard again in Terijoki. About half-hour the weapons of the Red Baltic Fleet were firing all over the place. Almost the whole village was on fire. The next day, Finlanders left Terijoki, which surrendered to the 2nd platoon in command of capitan Ugrumov (70th division, 7th Army). Two days later, all Soviet papers published the report, that on December,1, in the town of Terijoki (Eastern Finland), in accordance with the agreement of opposition and rebels, the New Administration of the Finnish Republic has been formed. Soon from Moscow, Leningrad and Petrozavodsk, into the town of Terijoki, occupied by the Red Army, were moved the members of this puppet administration, which was accommodated in the old summer house of Ainola. The chairman, named Otto Kuusinen, has received a residence in the building of the former summer house of Novikov. The officer's club of the 1st Yegersky company used to reside there prior to that. Today, this is building 6, on the Ispolkomovskaya street.

On December, 21, 1939 - there are mass meetings of triumph with the participation of the "Democratic Government". Soldiers and commanders of the so-called People's Army of Finland, giving a pledge to comrad Stalin, to fight for the victory of the Democratic Republic of Finland. But the failure of the attack in Finland has forced the Kremlin Administration to refuse their promising plan of exporting the revolution "on rifles", along with the Administration of Kuusinen, sitting on the shoulder of the Red Army. In the end of January, 1940, this entire organization was dismissed. The only trace it has left in the history of Terijoki, was the fact, that due to the existance of this almost unreal Democratic Republic of Finland, the village itself has been transformed into a city. Trying to stress the significance of their achievements, the Bolsheviks kept this tradition of not calling small Karelian villages other, but cities.

When the Soviet-Finnish War was over, Terijoki began to attract refugees from various areas of the Great Land of the Soviets. Obviously, no native residents left in Terijoki by this time.

On May, 25, 1940 - the Government of the USSR and the Communist Party have issued a legislative norm about supporting the shore of the Gulf of Finland financially, and organizing there a sanitary recreation area. The "gorsovet"- city administration makes decisions on keeping the area tidy, remodeling buildings, or renaming streets. The "trophy" property is now owned by local establishments, the housing trust and the "Terijokitorg"- for selling the property to Terijoki residents.

On May, 21, 1941 - there are 29 various organizations in Terijoki with the total of 2600 people on staff. Among those, 3 newly opened recreation facilities.

After 1941

The beginning of the Great Patriotic War has made the Terijoki population start to evacuate. On August, 31, Finnish troops have already entered the burning village. For the duration of the next three years, the number of soldier graves in the cemetery next to the Lutheran Church, has dramatically increased. The front line, shifting closer and closer, did not allow Terijoki residents to return to the places they used to belong. The residents were accommodated in the Tuusula community, which is 20 kilometers to the North of Helsinki. Only a small portion of the troops was located in Terijoki.

Another hurricane of war came over Terijoki in the beginning of June, 1944, and on June, 11th, at 8-15 am, portions of Division 109 in command of General Trushkin broke into the city. Other sources indicate, that Terijoki was occupied at about 5-00 pm by snipers from Platoon 286. The attack caused serious destruction to the city. Only about a hundred buildings were considered to be suitable for living. Those buildings accommodated about 360 working families. Soon afterwards, the repair works started almost all over the place. The railway, which was essentially damaged, was reconstructed by architect Grechaninov in 1950. The building of the Lutheran church, which was not destroyed, but remodeled into the movie theater under the name of "Pobeda", was soon ready again to accept new spectators. The soldier cemetery was eliminated, and the monument to the "Heroes of the war and defenders" was also destroyed, due to the fact, that "white" Finlanders were actually meant by heroes and defenders. A partly destroyed Orthodox church was repaired only in the 1970-ies. By this time, the city of Terijoki was already full of new modern buildings.

In 1946, the Supreme Soviet of the Russian Federation has issued an order to organize the recreation area of Leningrad with the center in Terijoki. Villages called Ollila, Kuokkala, Tulokas, Luutahanta, Kellomaki, Turiseva, Vammelsuu, Metsakula and Puhtula, became parts of the recreation area.

The next Government order, dated October, 1, 1948, has renamed the city of Terijoki into Zelenogorsk. The rest of the villages were also renamed in the Russian manner. The streets of the city were renamed correspondingly. The most modern names in Zelenogorsk date back to the times when the entire population of the city was represented by Red Commanders, Commendants, cavalerians, and soldiers of the Red Army.

In conclusion, we only have to add that the historical name of Terijoki comes from the name of a small river, currently known as the Pearl spring - Zhemchuzhny. Probably, the old name used to sound a bit differently - as Tervajoki - Oily River. In fact, the fishermen, who lived by the river, used the natural oil for lubricating their boats. Fishing was one of the main occupations of the native population on the shores of the Gulf of Finland for the duration of at least seven centuries.

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